Application of Biochemical Science in Agriculture with Special Emphasis on Environment
Biochemistry is an experimental science that defines the role of various biomolecules and their reactions in maintaining the cell vitality. The understanding of biochemistry has major impacts on medicine, agriculture, nutrition, ecology, and many other facets of life. Biochemical researches can uncover the cause and the subsequent cures of diseases; improve crop productivity, optimize our nutrition; and provide solutions for environmental pollutions. All in all, biochemistry provides an understanding of life processes down to the molecular level. Theknowledge in biochemistry has been applied for thousands of years in human history. Our ancestors made use of cow pox as a vaccine to get immunity against small pox as well as biochemical reactions occurring in yeast to ferment juices and to bake bread.Animal clinical biochemistry at large is a very efficient tool to contribute to the diagnosis of disaeses. It can also be used in toxicology and for environment monitoring. Information thus provided lead to postulate the existence of a chemical defense system. In toxicology, clinical biochemistry can be used to search for diverse toxic effects in laboratory animal species through experiments about the evaluation of the toxicity of xenobiotics such as pesticides, human or veterinary drugs. As environment is concerned, animal clinical biochemistry can be used to investigate the possible effects of endocrine modulators in various species, which is currently a major environmental concern. It can also help evaluate the effects of pollution in fish. All the results obtained with clinical biochemistry lead to an evidence : in all animals, there is a system of chemical defense based on a large number of mechanisms, which allow to fight efficiently against this type of aggression. This system of defense has many similarities with the immune system : immaturity at birth, inducibility, specificity, overflow by toxic effects when doses are too high. Moreover, the actions of this system allow to better understand the concept of hormesis, elaborated in the latest years, which shows that in many cases low doses of toxicants can have beneficial effects on vital processes.